Planet MUNZ Local 10

Felixstowe DockersPort Of Felixstowe Pics By Robin Pridmore

   Pic credits to Robin Pridmore  

Felixstowe DockersTruck Drivers: How to Drive a Lorry Properly (1965) | British Pathé

Published on 13 Apr 2014

This film from 1965 follows the routes of two lorry drivers, 'old sober-sides' and 'old tearaway' , as they demonstrate the right and wrong way to be safe on the road. For Archive Licensing Enquiries Visit: Our Online Channel For FULL Documentaries, Fascinating Interviews & Classic Movies: #BritishPathé #Lorry #Truck #Driving #Guide #Cars Subscribe to the British Pathé YT Channel: 
(FILM ID:309.01) Comparison between good and bad truck drivers in Oxfordshire. The film follows the fortunes of "old sober-sides" the safe driver and of "old tearaway" who breaks the rules. L/S of a policeman standing on country road waving a lorry (Austin) over to a lay-by. The commentator tells us that they are carrying out spot checks to find the good from the bad drivers. The lorry being checked is that of "old sober - sides". The two inspectators stick a certificate on the side of the vehicle and let the lorry move off. M/S of "old tearaway" leaning out of lorry speaking to policemen and inspectors, appearing to be having problems. M/S of two teenage girls standing on road hitchhiking the safe driver passes by without stopping (this would be breaking company regulations) M/S of bad driver pulling up to give hitchhikers a lift (breaking firms regulations). Various shots comparing the safe and bad drivers. The safe driver wave cars past him out of courtesy, while the bad violently swerves in front of a Morris Minor as it attempts to overtake, and blocks vehicles at a junction. M/S of both drivers pulling up at roadside cafe. Shot of bad driver putting money in jukebox and playing one-arm bandit. "Old sober-sides" leaves first and heads back to lorry not having wasted time like "old tearaway". BRITISH PATHÉ'S STORY Before television, people came to movie theatres to watch the news. British Pathé was at the forefront of cinematic journalism, blending information with entertainment to popular effect. Over the course of a century, it documented everything from major armed conflicts and seismic political crises to the curious hobbies and eccentric lives of ordinary people. If it happened, British Pathé filmed it. Now considered to be the finest newsreel archive in the world, British Pathé is a treasure trove of 85,000 films unrivalled in their historical and cultural significance. British Pathé also represents the Reuters historical collection, which includes more than 120,000 items from the news agencies Gaumont Graphic (1910-1932), Empire News Bulletin (1926-1930), British Paramount (1931-1957), and Gaumont British (1934-1959), as well as Visnews content from 1957 to the end of 1979. All footage can be viewed on the British Pathé website.

So.............where did it all go so badly wrong in 2019 ????. Still some very good drivers out there!!!!! BUT

Felixstowe DockersCollision and sinking of m.v. "TRICOLOR" On Dec 14, 2002

Collision and sinking of m.v. "TRICOLOR"
On Dec 14, 2002, in the early morning’s thick fog, on its way from Zeebrugge to Southampton, with a load of almost 3,000 BMWs, Volvos and Saabs, "Tricolor" collided with a 1982 Bahamian-flagged container ship named "Kariba", about 20 miles north of the French coast in the English Channel. Albeit scathed enormously above the water line, the "Kariba" could continue on while the "MV Tricolor" capsized and remained wedged on her side in 30 metres of deep waterway.

No lives were lost as the crew 24 persons onboard were rescued unharmed by the "Kariba" itself and another tugboat named "Boxer". But approximately 2,862 cars & 77 units of RoRo-cargo, consisting mainly tractors and crane parts, could not be salvaged. 

The shipping lane, being one of the busiest ones, had been buoyed off and guarded by the French police vessels "Glaive" and "HMS Anglesey" along with a few more, in order to alert other ships to the "MV Tricolor’s" presence. Despite that, only two days later a cargo ship, "Nicola",followed by another vessel, "Vicky", carrying 70,000 tonnes of highly flammable gas oil, crashed into the wreck of the MV Tricolor on Jan 1, 2003, after failing to heed to several French naval warnings. On Jan 22 the third unfortunate accident succeeded when a salvage tug knocked a safety valve off the Tricolor, resulting in massive oil spill.

These prioritized the rescue operation which was taken over by the Dutch company SMIT Salvage Co. On February 25, 2003, it was reported that the oil recovery operation from the wreck of M/V Tricolor has been completed, which was precisely the oil that can be safely reached & pumped. The salvage team spent 3 months splitting MV Tricolor wreck into 9 sections of 3000 Tonnes each ‘like cheese.’Sections of its hull were taken to Belgian port of Zeebrugge and all the luxurious cars, removed and destroyed. The operation took over a year and was declared completed on October 27, 2004.

Felixstowe DockersRotterdam Introduces the Moselle Express

The Port of Rotterdam has launched a new rail connection between its deep-sea terminal and Trier, which transports containers between the two destinations in just 12 hours.

According to a new video, which outlines the journey of containers between Rotterdam and Trier, speed, reliability and an optimal price are crucial to effective logistics.
In order to achieve the fast movement of cargo, each part of the supply chain must be fully optimized.

Read more about the Port of Rotterdam's plans to become the world's smartest port with a Port Technology technical paper

Rotterdam’s hypermodern terminals are designed to ensure the quick and skilled handling of all containers as they arrive, before being transported to the Moselle Express rail connection.
Once the containers arrive at Trier, smart logistics operations allow the cargo to be transported, via truck or rail, immediately, reducing obstacles and increasing the efficiency of the supply chain.
This enables shipping companies to easily service the large industrial area between Eifel, Saarland and Luxembourg.

In addition to the speed of one’s supply chain, there is a rising demand for sustainable logistics solutions.
The Moselle Express has a low carbon footprint, reducing CO2 emissions 30% by allowing containers transported through the rail connection to carry more weight.
With a deep-sea connection accessible in just 24 hours from the Moselle Express’ destination, this logistics solution is far quicker and more reliable than trucking alone. 

Read more:

New Paper: Rotterdam’s ‘Smartest Port’ Goal

Port of Rotterdam Hosts 5G Innovation

Felixstowe Dockers10 STS Cranes On One Vessel

Ask any IMV / Strad Carrier / Checker / Crane Driver / Stevedore if this really is viable !!!

Felixstowe DockersMSC LAUSANNE - IMO 9320398 

Felixstowe DockersA history of the Port of Felixstowe (Region 2)

Founded by Colonel George Tomline in 1875, the Port of Felixstowe began life as the Felixstowe Railway and Pier Company. The Port survived
two World Wars and a number of changes of ownership, and in 1966 work began on the New South Quay. Opening on the 1
st July 1967, and later renamed Landguard Container Terminal, it was the UK's first purpose-built container terminal.

This development helped establish Felixstowe as the UK's largest container port. Its first dedicated container terminal, originally known as the New South Quay, opened with just 500ft (152m) of quay and a single Paceco Vickers portainer crane.

The operation today bears no real resemblance to those early years. The scale and level of technical innovation have grown beyond recognition. But not everything has changed. In 1967 Felixstowe was developed because of its proximity to the main shipping lanes and the major ports of Northern Europe. That remains a key differentiator. But since then its position has been improved by the development of road and rail links.

Change has been a constant at Felixstowe over the last 50 years. The second phase of Landguard Terminal was completed in the 1970s, followed by Dooley,
Walton and Trinity Terminal, the UK's first post-panamax facility, which was built in phases through the 1980s and 1990s, with the final phase completed in 2004.

Since then growth has continued. The most recent phase of development, Berths 8 & 9, was opened in 2011 and was extended in 2015. The creation of the newest terminal involved the reclamation
of additional land from the River Orwell but also included the site of the New South Quay, bringing the story full-circle and ensuring that the largest container ships in the world are handled where the very first container ships visited 50 years ago. The 50
th anniversary of that major event will be celebrated throughout 2017.

Continual investment over the last 50 years has ensured that the Port of Felixstowe has maintained its position as the clear market leader. Today, the port handles the world's largest container ships and boasts nine berths providing over 3,000 metres of deep-water container quay serviced by 33 ship-to-shore gantry cranes. Paul Davey

Felixstowe DockersHow Ship’s Engine Works?

Marine engines on ships are responsible for propulsion of the vessel from one port to another.  Whether it’s of a small ship plying in the coastal areas or of a massive one voyaging international waters, a marine engine of either 4-stroke or 2-stroke is fitted onboard ship for the propulsion purpose.
The marine engines are heat engines used for converting heat, which is generated by burning fuel, into useful work, i.e. developing thermal energy and transforming it into mechanical energy. The engines used onboard ships are internal combustion engines (a type), in which, the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder and the heat is generated post the combustion process.

Ship Engine Working Principle

As mentioned earlier, IC (Internal combustion) engines are mainly used for marine propulsion and power generationpurpose. The working of the marine engine can be explained by the following procedure:
– The fuel is injected at a controlled amount at high pressure
– A mixture of fuel and air is compressed inside the engine cylinder with the help of piston, which results in the explosion of the mixture when pressurized due to compression. As a result, heat is released which increases the pressure of the burning gas
2-stroke & 4-stroke engines
– The sudden increase in the pressure pushes the piston downwards and transmits the transverse motion into the rotary motion of the crankshaft using connecting rod arrangement. The explosion is repeated continuously for maintaining the power output depending upon the type of marine engine and its usage.
The crankshaft is connected via a flywheel, either to the alternator or to a propeller arrangement for doing the mechanical work. To obtain continuous rotation of the crankshaft the explosion has to be repeated continuously.
Before the next explosion, the used gases are drawn out from the cylinder through an exhaust valve and fresh air is supplied, which helps to push the used gas and also to provide fresh air for next combustion process.

Types of marine diesel engines:

The two basic types of marine diesel engines are –
  • 4 stroke engine
  • 2 stroke engine
A 4 stroke engine can be installed on the ship to produce electrical power and also to propel the ship (usually in small size vessel). This engine takes 4 cycles to complete the transfer of power from the combustion chamber to the crankshaft.
The events taking place in I.C. engine are as follows:
  1. Suction stroke for taking the fresh air inside the chamber – which is the downward movement of the piston
  2. Compression stroke to compress the air-fuel mixture – which is an upward movement of the piston
  3. Power stroke – in which the explosion takes place and the piston is pushed downwards
  4. Exhaust stroke – which is an upward movement of the piston to draw out used gases
The four events are completed in four strokes of the piston (two revolutions of the crankshaft). An inlet and exhaust valve is fitted on top of the cylinder head to draw in fresh air and to expel the used exhaust gas.
Both, the valves and the fuel pump (which supply fuel to the injector), are operated using camshaft, which is driven by crankshaft using a gear drive. In a four-stroke engine, the camshaft runs at half the speed of the crankshaft. The crankcase is open to the piston liner arrangement, which assists in the lubrication of the liner.
The 2 stroke engines are used for vessel propulsion and are bigger in size as compared to the 4 stroke engines. In this engine, the complete sequence is complete in two cycles i.e.
  1. Suction and compression stroke –  which is the upward movement of the piston to draw fresh air inside and to compress the air-fuel mixture
  2. Power and exhaust – which is the downward movement of the piston due to an explosion inside the chamber followed by removal of exhaust through the exhaust valve fitted on the top of the cylinder. A stuffing box is used which separates and seals the crankcase against the combustion chamber.

A basic ship engine working video is shown below:

This video shows how a 2 stroke marine engine on ship works-

How and where is ship’s engine made?

If you have seen engines on ships, including small 4 stroke generator engines and also the massive 2 stroke propulsion engines, one thought which must have crossed your mind is how and where these engines were made?
The most famous engine manufacturers, whose engines, are used in ships are:
  1. MAN Diesel & Turbo (Previously B&W engines)  – famous for high, medium and slow speed marine engines
  2. Wartsila (Previously Sulzer Engines) – famous for high, medium and slow speed marine engines
  3. Mitsubishi – producing engines for light, medium, and heavy-duty applications
  4. Rolls Royce – famous for the cruise ship and naval ship engines
  5. Caterpillar manufactures – for medium speed and high-speed marine diesel engines
Wartsila is still the Guinness World Record holder for the largest ship engine ever built.
The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C two-stroke engine fitted with turbocharger holds this record. Manufactured for large container ships, its dimensions are as follows:
Length – 27 metres (88 ft 7 in),
Height- 13.5 metres (44 ft 4 in)
weight > 2,300 tonnes.
Power output~ 84.42 Megawatts (114,800 bhp).
The size of the ship engine varies from ship to ship, type of stroke it has, and its power output. The ship engine can be as high as a 5 story building, and to accommodate it, the ship engine room has to be designed accordingly.

Where are marine engines made?

These marine engines are built at the facilities of the manufacturers. For e.g. MAN Diesel has production facilities in Augsburg, Copenhagen, Frederikshavn, Saint-Nazaire, Shanghai, etc.
Similarly, Wartsila has facilities in Finland, Germany, China etc.
The ship’s engine can also be made in reputed shipyard if there is a contract between the two companies.
shipyard maersk
The engine is usually made in three different sections (explained below) and depending upon the size of the engine room and access for the installation, it can be fitted in the shipyard either in sections or as an entire assembly.

Material Used For Making Ship Engine

The material used for making the ship’s engine and different ship engine parts are:
Bedplate: The bedplate is the bottom-most portion of the engine which is the base of the engine and accommodates crankshaft bearings and A-frame. For the small engine, a single casting of cast iron is used and for large 2 stroke engines, fabricated cast steel transverse sections with longitudinal girders are used.
A frame: The A-frame, as the name suggests, is similar to the shape of letter ‘A’ and is installed above the bedplate of the engine. It is built separately to carry the crosshead guide and on top, it supports the base of the entablature. The bottom surface of the A-frame is machined for making a mating surface to install on top of the bedplate.
Entablature: The entablature, also known as cylinder block, is made from cast iron and used to accommodate the cooling water and scavenge airspace. Depending upon the size of the engine, the casting can be either for individual or multicylinder (bolted together). The lower portion of the cylinder block is machined to form a mating surface and fastened with the A-frame using fitted bolts.
The other different ship engine parts which are fitted inside the engine are:
Parts of Wartsila RTFlex Electronic Engine
Piston, liner, cylinder, connecting rod, crankshaft, camshaft, fuel pump, exhaust valve, etc. and these important parts can be studied in details in our ebook –

Ship engine maintenance

The basic ship engine maintenance comprises of planned maintenance which includes overhauling of important moving and static parts of the combustion chamber.
Following are some of the most common maintenance done on the marine engine:
  1. Overhauling and measurement of Piston, rings and piston rod
  2. Overhauling and measurement of the cylinder liner
  3. Overhauling and measurement of the exhaust valve
  4. Overhauling and measurement of the stuffing box
  5. Overhauling and measurement connecting rod and crosshead bearings
  6. Overhauling and measurement of main bearings
7. Measurement of crankshaft deflection
8. Checks and measurement of fuel pump timing
9. Checks and overhauling of starting air system

The time between overhauling of different parts of the engine is provided by the manufacturer in the engine manual. The maintenance needs to be performed as per the time specified between two overhauling durations, irrespective of issues shown by the engine.
Apart from timely overhauling, the engine ratings and power needs to be checked using digital power indicator. The scavenge space inspection is also done to check the condition of the piston ring, which in turn defines the efficiency of the lubrication system of the cylinder liner.
Marine engines used on ships are some of the most sophisticated and complicated engineering works. Marine engineers are therefore provided special training for operating, maintaining and troubleshooting marine engines on board ships.

Felixstowe Dockers10 Largest Ship Graveyards in the World

Where do all these ships go after their service life?
This frequently asked question, however, was offered a number of answers, suggesting a variety of ship disposal methods that have been used for a quite long time.
Ship disposal methods have come a long way as several approaches have been introduced and discontinued since the beginning of marine transportation. Most of the time, especially a half-century ago, the ships ended up in vast graveyards only to slowly decay in the years to come.
Also called as ship cemetery, these graveyards would generally have a large number of ships, boats, or hulls of scrapped vessels left to decay and rust. Such graveyards were formed as a result of the deliberate disposal of the vessels, natural calamities and wars, among others. Thus, the phrase now refers to places that are created specifically for the purpose of a ship’s decomposition and also the oceanic parts where ships have been stranded without any chances of getting rescued because of natural occurrences.
In addition, the places where a number of vessels have been purposely scuttled together, and have been sunk during naval battles also known as ship graveyards. Contrary to its name, these kinds of graveyards on the seabed are now home to rich marine life, becoming an excellent destination for scuba divers and marine enthusiast. Sometimes, even ship breaking yards, where the vessels are dismantled or scrapped for recycling their metal parts, are also termed as ship graveyards.
Here is a list of such ten ship graveyards around the world. (Not according to any ranking system)
1. Bay of Nouadhibou
Located in Mauritania, this passage of water is regarded unequivocally across the world as being the world’s largest ship graveyard. It is said that more than 300 vessels can be found in this graveyard, both in the water and on land. However, unlike the other mentioned ship graveyards, the Bay of Nouadhibou was used as a ship dumping ground mainly on account of the avarice of the Mauritian authorities who allowed uncensored dumping of ships in the Bay after receiving bribes. Hundreds of ships were brought from all over the world to be disposed of in the area during 80’s following the nationalization of the country’s fishing industry. The popular wreck of the Bay of Nouadhibou ship graveyard is a reefer vessel named United Malika.
2. Aral SeaThe Aral Sea is a well-known graveyard of ships in the Eurasian country of Uzbekistan. Once a thriving hive of fishing activity, the Aral Sea was reduced to a graveyard after the Soviet government decided to divert two rivers that fed the sea to irrigate the desert for cultivation, particularly of cotton. The Aral Sea began to shrink in the 1960s and the body of water had split the lake into two separate bodies of water–the North and South Aral Seas- in 1987. Following this, many ships were abandoned by its owners, leaving the fishing towns to become a ship graveyards.
3. AlangShip Breaking Yard
The world’s largest graveyard with respect to ship breaking in the Indian sub-continent, Alang in Gujarat, India, oversees ship dismantling for almost 50% of the world’s vessels. Located on the Gulf of Khambat, over hundred yards along the beach in Alang dismantles vessels in different types and sizes, including car ferries, ocean liners, container ships and large supertankers, among others. According to reports, over 6,900 vessels have been dismantled in these yards during the last three decades. These ship-breaking yards in India have a capacity to break at least 450 ships annually and dismantled a record of 415 ships in 2011-12. On the other hand, as a storage facility for a variety of toxic wastes, these yards have polluted the beach and destroyed the marine life in the area.
4. Chuuk Lagoon
Chuuk Lagoon, also known as Truk Lagoon, is one of the largest ship graveyards under the water. A sheltered body of water in the central Pacific, Chuuk Lagoon represents Chuuk State within the Federated States of Micronesia. The result of an allied attack on Japan’s naval base in the South Pacific during World War II, Chuuk Lagoon has over 60 warships on the sea floor. The area surrounded by the wreckage has now become an array of marine life due to the presence of hundreds of species.
5. Landévennec
Mainly used by the French Navy, the ship graveyard in Landévennec consists of military vessels. The graveyard is basically a water cove created by the Aulne River about the Pen Forn point near Landévennec and has a depth of about 10 metres. The naval history of the region goes back to around 1840 when a naval station was first established there to house reserve fleet vessels. Currently, a number of naval vessels belonged to the French Navy, including the Soviet-built Komet and the cruiser named Colbert, rest in Landévennec.
6. Gadaniship-breaking yard
Located near Karachi, Pakistan, the Gadanibreaking yard is another biggest ship graveyard in the world. Stretches up to 10kn along the coast, this massive ship-breaking yard consists of over 130 ship-breaking plots.  The Gadani Yard, which provides employment to around 6,000 people, has an annual capacity of dismantling up to 125 ships. According to estimate, the yard dismantles up to 100 ships a year into metal sheets and other re-usable parts. At the yard, ships are being broken after they are run aground on the beach and dragged further when the weight of the disposed of vessel lessens.
7. Skeleton Coast
Located in Namibia, the Skeleton Coast is a ship graveyard that features the ghostly remains of vessels resting there for years. The Skeleton Coast originates at the mouth of the River Ugab and extends up to the River Kunene located near the border of Angola.
Known as the Skeleton Coast National Park (named in the year 1973), the ship graveyard is regarded by many as the world’s largest graveyard of ships.The occurrence of impenetrable fogs and storms has led to various ships being stranded causing it to become a vessel graveyard.The name, Skeleton Coast, comes from the remains of the whale and seal bones that were littered in the coast by the whaling industry. In addition, the remains of stranded vessels in the coast also resulted in the popularity of the name.
8. Staten Island
The Staten Island graveyard in the United States is a well-known graveyard for tugs and barges. The most important feature of the Staten Island graveyard is that some of the tugs and boats’ salvage rest here belong to the 20th century and it forms one of the most sought-after places for scuba-divers. Founded by John J. Witte in the 1930s, this scrapyard has been recognised as an official dumping place for tugboats, barges and ferries in the US. Other notable names of Staten Island graveyard include the Witte Marine Scrap Yard, the Tugboat Graveyard, the Arthur Kill Boat Yard, and the Donjon Iron and Metal Scrap Processing Facility.
9. Bikini Atoll
Located in the Marshall Islands, the Bikini Atoll is known for the naval vessels resting in its lagoons. The Bikini Atoll was a location of the United States’ nuclear testing programme, which saw the sinking of 90 vessels between 1946 and 1958. The ships used for testing in the seven test sites in the Bikini Atoll region include USS Pennsylvania, USS New York, USS Saratoga and USS Arkansas. Officially designated a ship graveyard by the US Navy, the Bikini Atoll is a UNESCO World Heritage Site now. A very popular destination for researchers and scuba-divers, it has been recently found out that the coral reefs of the Atoll which had been completely destructed during the war-time are showing signs of re-growth and resurgence.
10. Olenya Bay
Olenya Bay, located on the Kola Peninsula in Russia, is home to the historic Soviet submarine graveyard. As an active military base during the Cold War, the bay witnessed the disposal of the submarines those completed their military duty. The subs that are resting in the Olenya Bay’s cemetery date back to the 1970s, during when the Russian shipyards were struggling to meet the Navy’s requirements and didn’t have resources to recycle the old underwater vessels.  However, many submarines disposed of in the Bay were dismantled and recycled later, especially during the 1990s.
Ship graveyards in recent times have come under the scrutiny of environmentalists and preservationists of the oceanic ecosystem and ecology. Organisations like the Greenpeace are taking huge efforts to make people aware of the repercussions of such ship graveyards. In today’s times, it needs to be noted that many shipping companies and government authorities make sure that the dismantling of a ship happens in dry docks. However, those ships which are not disposed of in dry docks still do become a part of the ship graveyard chain. In order to protect the marine ecosystem from degenerating further, it is important and highly imperative that the usage of ship graveyards is restricted and curtailed.
Disclaimer: The authors’ views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of Marine Insight. Data and charts, if used, in the article have been sourced from available information and have not been authenticated by any statutory authority. The author and Marine Insight do not claim it to be accurate nor accept any responsibility for the same. The views constitute only the opinions and do not constitute any guidelines or recommendation on any course of action to be followed by the reader.

Felixstowe DockersMSC RIFAYA - IMO 9767388

Felixstowe DockersIMPORTANT: Meet Natasha and Brendan. They make chocolate at the Cadbury factory in Tasmania

IMPORTANT: Meet Natasha and Brendan. They make chocolate at the Cadbury factory in Tasmania. This photo is of them outside the Federal Court in Melbourne.

Right now they have a case in the Federal Court which could have disastrous consequences for workers across the country. It's a bit complicated, so indulge us a sweet moment of your time.

Natasha and Brendan work 12 hour shifts. Under current rules, workers like Natasha and Brendan are entitled to 10 days sick leave per year. Their day is considered 12 hours (because that's what they work!) so that means they're entitled to 120 hours of sick leave per year.

Their company, Cadbury, has decided to run a case against them. Cadbury says that even if you work 12 hours a day, the definition of a day is 7.6 hours. They say that Natasha and Brendan should only get 76 hours of sick leave per year.

It's a pretty tricky way of robbing Natasha and Brendan of sick leave hours.

If that wasn't bad enough, the Federal Industrial Relations Minister, Kelly O'Dwyer, has intervened in the case to ask the court to agree with Cadbury. So not only do Natasha and Brendan have to take on one of our biggest companies, they have to take on the Federal Government too.

If Cadbury and the Minister get away with it, this will become the new normal.

Share this post to support Natasha and Brendan.

Felixstowe DockersContainer Ship "MAERSK LOTA" - Berthing "BUENOS AIRES" - LUIGI BOCCHERINI - Musica Notturna delle..

Container Ship "MAERSK LOTA" - Manoeuvring of Arrival, Approaching and Berthing at Terminal 4 of Buenos Aires Port. Container Ship "MAERSK LOTA" - Official Number: 397574 - IMO Number: 9526954 - Call Sign: 9V9777 - Flag: Singapore - LOA: 299,90 - Beam: 45,20 - Depth: 24,20 - Net Tonnage: 48488 - Summer Draft: 14,023 - DW: 100072.
Position: North Channel - Buenos Aires Port Access Channel // Terminal Number 4 of Buenos Aires Port // BUENOS AIRES CITY #Argentina. 3 Tugs: "OBSERVADOR", "MIRADOR" and "YAGAN". Date: 11th. April 2016 - 1135 Local Time. You can watch on @YouTube

Felixstowe DockersDifferent Parts Of A Ship Explained

By  | In: Guidelines 

A ship is like a floating city having several different parts. However, we can’t imagine a ship without its three main parts which are: The Hull, an engine room and a navigation bridge.
A ship comprises of both visible as well as invisible parts. E.g. rudder, anchor, bow, keel, accommodation, propeller, mast, bridge, hatch coves and bow thrusters are some common visible parts whereas bulkheads, frames, cargo holds, hopper tank, double bottom, girders, cofferdams, side shell etc. are the invisible parts of a ship.
To understand parts of a ship, one must have to go through some common terms.
The most forward part of a ship is called a Bow, the left-hand side of the ship is referred to as port whereas the right side is called starboard. Likewise, the front side is termed as forward and back side as astern.
Now let us discuss some main parts which are common to all types of ships.

Monkey Island: 

  • Monkey Island is a sort of deck located at a topmost accessible height of the ship and just above the bridge
  • This part of a ship is sometimes also referred to as a flying bridge and, in past, was used by the sailors for solar and stellar observations. It houses a magnetic compass.
  • It is an integral part of ship and houses driving units such as VDR capsule, AIS Tx/Rx antennae, Radar scanner(s) attached to the radar mast, Sat C/F77 Tx/Rx antennae, communication equipment gear, various halyards connected to the yardarm to hoist flags, weather vane, and the masts leading up to the ‘Christmas Tree’ (navigation lights) and to the ship’s aft whistle.


  • The ship’s bridge is the commanding station of a ship. It controls the ship movement through its navigational equipment.
  • It controls important deck machinery, main engine and ship’s navigation system.
  • Functions that are usually performed on the ship bridge are: controls the ship’s speed and direction (navigation), monitor weather and sea conditions, navigating and fixing the position of the ship, and facilitating internal as well as external communication


  • A Funnel or Stacks is a chimney on a vessel used to discharge engine and boiler smoke.
  • Lifting of the exhaust gasses, clear from the deck, is the constitutional purpose of the Funnel.
Monkey Island


  • The accommodation area is the house for crews and lives. It has all the amenities along with offices, gym, crew cabins, hospital, salon, recreation room, common rooms, laundry and galley.
  • It is a key part of the ship and consists of the garbage disposal system, fresh water system, sewage treatment plant, refrigeration system (domestic) and air conditioning for accommodation block.
  • It is a necessary part of a ship, and facilitates space for relaxing, medical facility and food courts.

Funnel Deck:

  • Funnel releases exhaust gases into the atmosphere from engine exhaust room of the ship. It has a similar function to chimneys in factories.
  • Nowadays extra care has been taken in discharging shoot from the funnel to preserve the atmosphere from pollution.
  • These funnels are never installed straight but inclined at a certain angle toward the aft so that the flue gases will not cause hindrance to the deck and navigation bridge of the ship

Boat Deck:

  • Ship hull structure is covered by the deck floor. There can be multiple decks or deck sections on a ship. The deck at the top which bears maximum exposure to weather is referred to as the main deck or weather deck.
  • On the basis of the position of a ship’s deck, decks are of six main types; main deck, poop deck, upper deck, lowers deck, weather deck and foredeck.
  • The boat deck’s main function is holding the hull structure and providing floor to work, and standing and guard them against outside weather.
Mast and Funnel Deck


  • The mast is a rangy spar arrangement which is elevated more or less vertically to the Centre line of a ship.
  • It has several purposes which include carrying derricks and also giving fundamental height to the navigation light, salient yards, radio or radar aerials and scanners.

Flying Bridge:

  • It is an extended area on top of a weather deck or an open area of the superstructure which provides an unobstructed view of the fwd and aft along with the sides of the vessel to the navigational officers.
  • It also serves as an operating station for the officer and crew of the watch.
  • It also contains a duplicate set of controls which is of vital importance for the master, ship’s officers and pilot for berthing and unberthing of the vessel.


  • Front-most part of the boat or ship’s bow is termed as Stem of the ship.
  • The keel itself is extended up to gunwale to form the curved edge called stem of the ship.
  • These stems can be of two styles viz. raked and plumb stems, where former is inclined at some angle to the waterline and later is perpendicular to the waterline.


  • The forecastle is one of the foremost parts of the ship of length less than 7% of total deck length.
  • It was initially used in military vessels, in which the soldiers used forecastle to take defensive positions.
  • But, today, forecastle serves many functions such as holding, anchoring and securing the major parts of the ship.


  • The foredeck is the forward part of a weather deck, between the superstructure and the foc’sle superstructure.
  • Basically, it is a part of the vessel forward of the forward mast.

Bulbous Bow:

  • It is a jut out bulb at the bow of the vessel just below the W/L.
  • It cuts the water and tweaks the water flow around the hull, increasing the vessel’s speed, fuel efficiency and stability.
  • 12-15% of better fuel efficiency is observed in the vessel with the bulbous bow.
  • It also increases the buoyancy of the onward part of the vessel, which results in the reduction of pitching up to some extent.


  • The stern is aft end structure and designed to provide low resistance, high propulsion efficiency and avoid vibrations.
  • It is the rearmost part of a ship which keeps the water out. Rudders and propellers are hanged to the stern.
  • The stern can be shaped flat, canoe-like, tapered, sharp to serve the purpose of cutting the water in its way.
poop deck

Poop Deck:

  • It serves as a roof to the cabin constructed in the aft of the ship.
  • It facilitates the captain and helmsman to supervise the entire working crew.
  • But in modern ships, the poop decks are provided either in the centre of the ship or on the starboard.

Side Thrusters:

  • These are somewhat like a propeller and fitted on either side of the bow of the ship.
  • It helps in manoeuvring ship under slow speed in congested waters near ports or canals. These are also referred to as tunnel thruster.
  • Side thrusters influence the total running cost of a ship to a greater extent. These are either hydraulically or electrically powered.


  • Without steering, we can’t move a vehicle in the desired direction; so the propeller propels the ship and rudder steer the ship. The rudder is a flat hollow structure, housed in the aft of the propeller.
  • It consists of following parts: rudder trunk, moveable flap, main rudder blade, hinge system, links and rudder carrier bearing. Rudders are of three types: balanced type, semi-balanced type and unbalanced type rudder.
  • As a vital part of the ship, the rudder is provided with a steering gear system which controls the movement of the rudder. It works on Newton’s Third Law of motion.
Related Read: Types of Rudders 


  • It is a mechanical device having blades fitted on a central shaft. These blades rotate and their rotational energy is converted into pressure energy and due to this, the propeller produces thrust required for propulsion. It pushes the sea water backwards and, in turn, the sea water helps the ship in moving forward.
  • Engine, shaft and propeller together constitute propulsion unit. The propeller should be made up of materials like aluminium, bronze, manganese etc which are excellent corrosion resistant alloys. There can be one, two or three propellers.
  • It is the most important part of the ship without which a ship can’t move. So, the main function of propeller is to propel the ship in the forward direction by producing thrust on water. Its working principles are Newton’s third law of motion and Bernoulli’s theorem.

Paint Room:

  • A small onboard area is required in marine vessels to handle and store paint. This room is known as the Paint room.
  • Special provisions are there for the paint room to cater explosion and release of chemical gases and vapours from these enamels.
  • There should be LED lighting in the paint room to reduce cost and brackets should be available to provide flexible mounting and storage of paints.

Emergency Generator Room:

  • When the main supply goes out of order then small separate generator supplies electricity for emergency loads. This is called an emergency generator. 
  • It is located above the topmost deck, away from main and secondary machinery and collision bulkhead, and has its own switchboard in its surroundings.
  • This generator should be easily operable and can be started at even 0°C

Ballast Tanks:

  • The compartments maintained specially to carry water, which serves the purpose of ballasting and stabilizing the vessel, are termed as Ballast Tanks.
  • These tanks should be provided with proper care to prevent them from corrosion, as sea water is highly corrosive.
  • These tanks are revolutionary to the marine industry as before their evolution solid ballast was used and their discharging is quite difficult as compared to easier pumping of liquid ballast.
segregated ballast tanks

Bunker tanks:

  • The tanks on the ships which are used to store fuel and lube oils on ships are known as bunker tanks
  • These lube oils are required for safer machinery operations and the fuel is used for emergency or regular operations.
  • As these tanks store sludge, diesel, oils etc. which can catch fire immediately, they are provided separately and far from ignition prone areas.

Duct Keel:

  • Duct keel is a hollow structure which consists of two longitudinal girder and solid plates and is welded to form box type structure, which is generally provided in double hull ships.
  • The duct keel should provide a watertight passage along the ship length. It consists of sounding pipe for leakage detection.
  • This is a multi-functioning part of the ship for performing several functions like provide resistance to loads, carry water pipeline, ballast pipelines, oil pipe, etc.

Ship Cargo gear (Derrick/Cranes etc):

  • Derricks (Cranes) are used to lift and carry the safe working load on a ship.
  • These are electrically or hydraulically operated equipment for easier operations.
  • The capacity of ship cargo cranes and gears for handling cargos is 15 tons to 4000 tons per hour.

Samson Post/King Post:

  • It is a heavy vertical post which supports the cargo booms.
  • It rests on the Keelson and supports the deck beam of a vessel.
Hatch Cover

Cargo hold:

  • Enclosed space to retain and store cargo or freight container carrying coal, grain and salt is referred to as a cargo hold.
  • The cargo hold is located under the deck of the ship and has a holding capacity ranging from 20 tons to 200000 tons.
  • The main function of the cargo hold is to preserve cargo when it is transported to the destination.

Hatch Cover:

  • To prevent the cargo storage from any kind of spoilage, especially to make storage spaces air as well as watertight, hatch covers, are required. Generally, to save the food items ( or any other cargo) transported by ship from rain during the voyage.
  • The design of hatch cover changes according to the type of the vessel, but the only requirement is that it should be quick enough to provide faster cargo handling processes.
  • In the past, these hatch covers were crane or winch driven, but today, mainly hydraulically driven hatch covers are used.


  • Freeboard can be defined as the distance measured from the waterline to the higher edge of the freeboard plating/deck plating at sides of it amidships.
  • The minimum freeboard calculation for a vessel must be approved by the classification society.
  • The calculation of freeboard plays a very critical role in defining the load line marks of the vessel, which in turn, is directly related to the cargo carrying or the earning capacity of the vessel.


  • The hull is a watertight body of a vessel which may be open or may be partially covered with a deck.
  • Hull has several watertight decks and bulkheads as the major transverse membrane.
  • The intermediate member of the hull consists of girders, webs and stringers.
  • Depending on the structural arrangements, there may be minor members too called longitudinal.

Deck House:

  • It is a house-like structure on the upper deck.
The ship, an important source of trading through seaways, may be made up in different styles and sizes. Some parts are called essential parts which are common to all ships but others are just accessories to provide luxurious or improved shipping.
All the parts which form the ship should be checked for proper working and precautions should be taken for risky equipment.
Three necessary parts of the ship are hull (the main body of the vessel), navigation bridge (helps in directing the ship in the proper direction) and engine room (propels ship or helps in moving). However, today modern ships are equipped with the most modern equipment and technologies to its different parts to improve voyage at sea.
Disclaimer: The authors’ views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of Marine Insight. Data and charts, if used, in the article have been sourced from available information and have not been authenticated by any statutory authority. The author and Marine Insight do not claim it to be accurate nor accept any responsibility for the same. The views constitute only the opinions and do not constitute any guidelines or recommendation on any course of action to be followed by the reader.

Felixstowe DockersThose photos are taken at Shanhai Zhenhua Heavy Industries Co, Ltd

QC හදන තැන I. #Share
Those photos are taken at Shanhai Zhenhua Heavy Industries Co, Ltd, Changxing branch and it will showing the "Massive Strength" of ZPMC network.
Annual production count is over 200QCs !
World while over 86 branches !

Felixstowe DockersMaersk’s one hundred years in the USA

PETER MÆRSK departing New York on the USA-Asia service.

By Henning Morgen, Maersk's Historian
The first Maersk company in the United States was established on 7 July 1919 by ship-owner A.P. Møller. One hundred years. From steamships with a capacity equal to 325 containers to ultra large vessels with a capacity of 20,000 containers. From one office in Denmark to global representation. 
Every decade of the past one hundred years has delivered milestones to the Maersk history – here’s a short run down of the most important developments in the United States.
In 1913, LAURA MÆRSK was the first Maersk vessel to call a port in the United States when she called Galveston, Texas, on 2 December – on charter to today’s Hamburg Süd. The first active engagement in the inter-American trade was established with two Maersk vessels in 1917, managed from Copenhagen.
Two years later, A.P. Møller teamed up with his cousin Hans Isbrandtsen and formed The Isbrandtsen-Moller Company Inc. Initially, ISMOLCO – the trading name – focused on chartering and brokerage, but the aim was to “settle down into permanent trades”.

It took nine years until the first major contract with a shipper was made. In 1928, Maersk Line was established based on an agreement with the Ford Motor Company about moving car parts to their assembly factory in Yokohama.
The first voyage on a Maersk Line service started on 12 July in Baltimore. By 1934, Maersk Line was making fortnightly sailings, but did not expand into new trades.

While representing the company interests outside Denmark during the Second World War, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller established Interseas Shipping in 1943, later renamed Moller Steamship Company, which in turn was renamed Maersk Inc. in 1988. Moller Steamship Company became the general agent for Maersk Line in 1946.
In 1955, Los Angeles was opened as the first office outside New York. New agencies continued to be opened to win more market share. Pier 11 in Brooklyn, New York, was inaugurated as the first proprietary Maersk Line terminal facility in 1958.
The new and modern Pier 11 supported Maersk Line’s focus on efficient cargo handling and service to the greater New York area in the 1960’s but had to be abandoned when Maersk Line’s USA-Asia service was containerized in 1975. 

ADRIAN MÆRSK departed from Pier 51 at Port Elizabeth, New Jersey, on 5 September 1975 carrying 385 containers and Maersk Line had taken the step into containerization. The 45 acres at Pier 51 became the first container terminal for the exclusive use of Maersk Line.
Maersk Line Limited had been set up in 1947 to be the company behind the new Maersk Line offices in Japan. As the Maersk organisation expanded, the company lost its role – but that would change in 1983 when Maersk Line Ltd. received its first contract in support of the Military Sealift Command. Since then Maersk Line Ltd. has provided United States Flag transportation services to the United States Government. 

Container transport grew by 20% during 1975-1985 and land-based operations became part of the service offering. Bridge Terminal Transport obtained license to operate in 48 states and was responsible for Maersk Line’s road-based container distribution. The first departure on the dedicated Maersk Line train connection Tacoma-Chicago-New York took place in 1985.  

Supply chain management became possible with the use of IT. In 1990, Maersk signed its first integrated supply chain management contract with a United States retailer. A staggering 11,000 TEU were shipped for the one customer during 1991.

Building on the close cooperation in the vessel sharing agreement-setup since 1995, A.P. Moller – Maersk acquired Sea-Land’s ocean, logistics, rail and terminal activities in 1999, which were then integrated into the Maersk organisation. 

With the addition of the terminals from Sea-Land to Maersk’s existing portfolio, it was decided to establish APM Terminals in 2001. Its first major deliverable was Pier 400 in Los Angeles; in 2002 Pier 400 was the world’s largest proprietary terminal.
To strengthen our market position in the Americas, the Sealand brand was revitalized for the North, Latin and South American markets in 2015.

Read more about Maersk Line and our history here:

Felixstowe DockersThe World's Shortcut: How the Panama Canal Works

Published on 2 Jul 2019

Felixstowe DockersOOCL KOBE - IMO 9329526


Following a reported shark fin discovery earlier this year, involving a booking by another container carrier, MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company is taking the opportunity to clarify and raise awareness of its zero-tolerance position on shark fin carriage.

MSC is proud to be implementing since several years a complete global ban on consignments of any type of shark fin and of endangered shark.
Sharks are an important part of marine ecosystems around the world and MSC supports regulations and standards imposed by competent authorities to preserve populations of these animals. MSC totally rejects the practice known as “shark finning”, which involves removing and retaining the fins of a shark before returning it to the sea.
Those involved in this abhorrent practice do from time to time try to use container carriers to deliver shark fins to market. MSC therefore scrutinizes customer bookings using special key words, customer names and customs codes to try to detect possible attempts to circumvent its ban.
We believe it is important that carriers work together to limit the abuse of the shipping and logistics sectors by shark fin traders and, where necessary, enhance vessel-sharing agreements to reflect relevant policies and procedures.
MSC is committed to operating a responsible, sustainable business and, together with other global carriers, is a supporter of numerous initiatives driven by environmental associations for the protection of marine wildlife across the world.
In line with the Buckingham Palace Declaration, an initiative of United for Wildlife, MSC encourages a zero-tolerance policy on illegal wildlife trade. The company also continuously improves systems of detection and information-sharing on suspicious activities related to a variety of wildlife and supports customs and other enforcement agencies.
MSC also implements its own ethical initiatives to support wildlife protection, for example, banning the carriage of animal hunting trophies.
For further information, journalists may contact:
MSC customers may contact their local MSC representatives with any questions.

Felixstowe DockersFelixstowe Dockers Blast From The Past

A Blast From The Past - Felixstowe Dockers

Clive Wyards son Des has sent me a load of pics from the past at Felixstowe Docks. Made me laugh out loud at some of them. Posting them on Saturday at 17.30pm


A Blast From The Past - Felixstowe Dockers

Big John Smith / Ronnie Caris / Bob Baldry / Clive Wyards brother in law Dirty Dave Donnerly showing his arse

 Mick Potter & Kevin Long

 Before my time ;

Hi - I enjoyed the photos. Sad that we are now seeing them. The photo where you wrote “before your time” is from a gang on NSQ. Left to right is Eric Foulger (seated) Dennis Last, (big) Al Thrower and (stumpy) Richard Dixon. All the best Kevin Long

Dave Smith R.I.P old friend

Kevin Long and Johnny Lloyd " ginger "

Sanky ? / Darryl Vineyard & Kev Long again

Peter Squirrel R.I.P & Paul Doughty

Kev Long  / Hamish Maule / Jim Feviour & Ronnie Caris

Dave Sayers / Paul Procter / Tich Pooley & Gareth Jones

Thanks to Des Wyard who sent me these pics. Taken by his dad Clive Wyard who was cruelly taken away last year R.I.P

Felixstowe DockersReal Life Accident: Ship’s OS Dies Because Of Poor Mooring Practice


Before arrival, the Master conducted a meeting to brief officers on the mooring plan and the constraints at the port. The vessel, an 85,000 ton bulk carrier, is provided with 16 mooring lines on mooring drums. As it was, the vessel was not accommodated along her full length of 287 metres at the berth; her aft section was to overhang the end of the berth by about 20 metres. The plan was to berth the vessel 6-3-3 forward and aft. This mooring could be achieved by doubling the existing ropes and the mooring plan agreed with the pilot.
The lead of all mooring lines was relatively short as the vessel was not berthed with her full length alongside the berth. The Master protested to the agents and charterers immediately after berthing about the inadequacy of moorings and the unsafe conditions for rigging the gangway.
Sometime after berthing it was observed that the vessel’s bow had come off the berth by about one metre. The third mate and an OS proceeded to the forecastle deck and the second mate and one AB proceeded aft. To bring the bow alongside, the third mate heaved on the starboard breast line and second mate slackened the stern lines. Then third mate proceeded to heave up a head line and the OS was asked to heave up the starboard breast line. Within 10-15 seconds of the OS being asked to heave up the starboard breast line a loud sound of parting rope was heard. The third mate immediately came to the starboard side where he observed the OS, prone and bleeding between the mooring winch and the control stand.
The broken mooring rope was a 70mm diameter polypropylene monofilament 8-strand plaited rope and on visual examination found to be in general good condition. The rope was found to have parted at a point about 14 metres from the eye. As a result of being hit on the head by the parted breast line the OS was declared dead at the hospital that same evening.
Contributing factors
  • The OS, although holding a qualification as an Efficient Deck Hand (EDH) and having been given awareness training for the mooring equipment on this vessel had only recently been promoted to OS from steward. He had little experience of tending to the moorings of a large vessel in such difficult environmental circumstances.
  • The plan of mooring equipment at forecastle deck shows that the breast line is passed through the pedestal roller fitted aft of the mooring winch on deck. In this arrangement the winch operator’s position is in the snap back zone of the breast line.
  • It is likely that the OS did not realise that he was standing in the snap back zone for the rope he was hauling as the snap back markings were no longer clearly marked on deck.
  • The head line that the third officer was hauling was approximately twice the length of the line that the OS was working, already pretensioned during initial efforts to bring the ship back alongside. Although the ropes were of similar materials it is likely that the shorter length of rope acting as the breast line began taking on a breaking load while the forward head line was still taking up the elasticity of the rope.
  • The lead of all mooring lines was relatively short. This reduced the length of wharf available. The vessel was also unable to heave on her stern lines and bow lines simultaneously to keep the vessel alongside as the overhang would have resulted in the stern moving in and the bow moving out.
  • Coordination between the terminal, pilots and the vessel was poorly managed and did not provide for safe berthing of the vessel. The issues with inadequate mooring arrangements, safe access and egress and the commercial pressures of starting cargo operations all stretched senior management onboard. This resulted in confusion, incomplete preparation and inadequate shore-to-ship coordination. This failure also carried over to the following evening when another rope failed at the next high flood tide. This time the rope was not being attended to.
  • Given the size of the ship, reduced wharfage and tidal currents, the most appropriate action would have been to have a tug standing by during the manoeuvres.

Actions taken
  • The snap back zones have been re-established and now include the pedestal fairlead position. All fairlead rollers at the forecastle deck have been de-rusted and painted to smooth the surface.
  • Crew educated on the snap back zones at forward and aft mooring stations.
  • A campaign on mooring safety has been carried out in the company fleet. Every vessel in the fleet reviewed their mooring arrangement and prepared a risk assessment for mooring as per fitted mooring arrangement and in normal weather conditions. The countermeasures to these hazards were also identified. The quality and quantity of mooring ropes required for each vessel must be identified and documented.

Felixstowe DockersExperts ABP Humber Handle Cranes Being Exported to Finland

Two Weldex cranes join additional project cargo in the hold for an export shipment to Finland
ABP at the Port of Immingham has expertly handled a number of heavy lift components for export to Kemi in Finland.

ABP stevedored the project cargo operation of crane components totalling almost 2000 tonnes, across three days.

The cranes, owned by Weldex (International) Offshore Ltd, were transported by road to, Immingham, the UK’s largest port. The cranes, once reassembled overseas, will be used to construct onshore wind turbines.

The company, Martin Bencher International Project Freight Forwarder, who specialises in oversize and heavy cargo, was responsible for the ship chartering and project management execution. Project Manager, Martin D. Valsted, attended the Port of Immingham to oversee the operation.

Martin said: “It was a well-planned and executed operation that was carried out efficiently, including excellent communication and teamwork by all parties involved. As per Martin Bencher requirements, cargo was loaded safely with background in method statement and risk assessment”.
Meticulous planning was required from all parties involved in the ABP operation to ensure that each piece fitted perfectly within the vessel hold and the discharge operation in Finland would go with ease.
Simon Bird, Regional Director for ABP Humber said: “We’re pleased to work alongside companies such as Martin Bencher to successfully handle such unique cargo. Our operatives’ professionalism and willingness to adapt to various commodities means that we are able to handle all types of specialist cargo.”

Felixstowe DockersCSCL MARS - IMO 9467287

Sun bathing on beach end

Published on 10 Jul 2019


Felixstowe DockersThrough a friend situated nearby, we understand that an industrial truck (a large forklift) operator lost his life today at an intermodal container depot located in Kemari (Karachi port), Pakistan.

Through a friend situated nearby, we understand that an industrial truck (a large forklift) operator lost his life today at an intermodal container depot located in Kemari (Karachi port), Pakistan.

The information coming to us indicates that during the process of hoisting an empty 40 foot open top container the machine's mast failed and then fulcrumbed backwards, crushing him as he sat in the machine's operator's seat.

Photographs we've been provided allow us to conjecture the fundamental causal elements of this accident, and we provide a couple of those photographs here to permit members of the "Longshore Safety" to exercise their own conjecture.

Ron Signorino

Member/Honorary Member at International Longshoremen's Association

Can we all assume that the maintenance schedule was carried out in the correct manor on this machine R.I.P Brother

Felixstowe DockersPortugal // António Mariano from SEAL on combating precariousness, building organization and the eternal struggle of capital against unions

Image by Duarte Guerreiro

By Duarte Guerreiro

This interview was originally conducted in late December, 2018. A now famous stevedores’ strike picket at the entrance to the port of Setúbal had only recently occurred.

At the time, the government, bosses and State locked arms in order to import scabs and break the picket and the strike of the precarious stevedoresdemanding long-term contracts. However, after facing the prolonged resistance of the precarious stevedores and the solidarity of their colleagues in other ports, the companies’ reticence in commiting to a deal to end precariousness in Setúbal was overcome.
Now that a collective work contract for the port of Setúbal has been won, we take the opportunity to publish this interview, as it deals with many aspects of the struggle which lead to obtaining the CWC. It also covers many other matters pertaining to SEAL’s (Stevedores and Logistical Activity Union) work. The interview was edited to be more clear and succinct. 


  1. Stevedoring work
  2. Trade unionism in crisis?
  3. Decision making and communication in SEAL
  4. Defamation campaigns
  5. Answering campaigns
  6. Setúbal as a diversionary maneuver
  7. National solidarity
  8. International solidarity
  9. Stevedoring and global commodity flows
  10. Organization a bigger concern for companies than precariousness
  11. Precariousness as a national policy
  12. The return of the language of class conflict
  13. The impositions of political correctness

Duarte Guerreiro // A stevedore gets up in the morning and…

António Mariano // And he heads to a workplace that, even if it is pleasant, by the waterfront, it is also quite dangerous. We go into an environment in which we are surrounded by steel, dozens of vertically suspended tons and extremely heavy machinery circulating all around us. On land or aboard ships, we have the notion that we can’t afford distractions from what we are doing.
It is a teamwork labor, where everyone is responsible for everyone else. That is where our spirit of unity begins. Our distraction may cause accidents for others, our comrades.
That is one reason why you must be prepared in order to do this job, and hence our struggle to prevent it from being performed by workers who appear around here sporadically. It is not a matter of corporatism. In fact, we are struggling precisely so that the number of professional port workers with dignified conditions can increase.
What capital intends and what results from the current law is that you only need to work one hour to be a stevedore. But you need preparation to be a stevedore, and I’m not even talking about the matter of the productivity demanded by bosses, I’m talking about obligatory basic notions. That is why we fight against extreme precariousness, in which we have to keep looking at the inexperienced colleague working next to us, who doesn’t even know the danger they are in.

DG // It is also an exhausting work, with companies asking for double shifts that lead to 16 hour work days.

AM // Or 24 hours. It is a matter of poor resource distribution coming out of a work model based on precariousness. Capital’s way of not creating permanent work positions is to excessively resort to overtime, especially during vacation periods, when fewer workers are available. As we usually say, giving everything to some and nothing to others. Some end up with good salaries, even if they are precarious workers, working non-stop. Others don’t even get enough to cover the needs of their family.
Our objective is precisely the contrary: to have a better work distribution, even if with some supplementary work to manage increased or reduced labor needs.
The conditions in which we work are also not the most pleasant. We have to work inside equipment with interior temperatures of over 50ºC during summer, or even in winter, due to inadequate cooling.
We work in environments which are similar to the bottom of a mine, surrounded by ore and coal, or around cereals covered in toxic preservatives while using inadequate masks. Other times we work 15 meters high, risking a fall which sometimes means a deadly accident.
All of these adverse conditions have no sympathy for the work models which capital wishes to impose.

DG // Trade unionism is in crisis in Portugal and all over the world, with low membership numbers and lot of disbelief by workers regarding the possibility of improving their lot by unionizing. How does SEAL counteract this tendency?

AM // First we have to recognize that the crisis of trade unionism is greater in some countries than in others. Internationalism is one of the things which defines us, with constant solidarity and communication with other countries. Examples from outside aren’t always of severe de-unionization like we experience in Portugal, sometimes it is the opposite. 
In Portugal, there is a brutal and systematic process of poisoning public opinion against unions, which renews itself with each new struggle. Whatever the reasons or motivations for the conflicts, that is where the controlled social communication directs the conversation.

A little video we put together to exemplify the news coverage bias against workers

Though we also have to recognize, in some cases, that the lack of independence of the trade union movement in relation to other agendas, has not been helpful in making worker’s struggles autonomous from other political processes. We have always been an independent union, with over a century’s worth of history. Although we do see ourselves more in line with CGTP [the main trade union confederation in Portugal] in terms of practical action.
Maybe the fact that there are so few positive examples is a reason for the low union membership numbers. Despite the fact that I don’t like to talk about “victory processes”, I usually say they are stoppages of capital’s wishes regarding labor.
When it comes to stevedores, our team work in close proximity, as we operate in very concentrated geographical zones with restricted access as ports are, might permit us to better organize and have membership rates approaching 100% at any port.
I would not like to talk a lot about a war between unions, but it is evident that we also deal with such things in the port sector. There are situations, such as in the port of Leixões, where companies count on the local union – if we can call it such a thing – to agree to everything they want implemented.
We fight against everything that represents. That might explain our growth. In the last two years, we have doubled our membership. It was around 360 as of the 2016 Lisbon process, which ended in a deal.

By the time the stevedores got around to their big protest during the 2016 Lisbon process, a deal had been reached. The demonstration was instead turned into an anti-precariousness protest.

Today we are approaching 700 members in various ports. The workers identify more with what we do and our demands. One of them is about the generational question; workers of the current generation should not have conditions inferior to those of previous generations. 
Globally, in terms of salaries, stevedores had a better situation in the past than the ones which are, on average, practiced today. The way we see it, if less professionals are needed because there is automation, heavy equipment and a different productivity in moving containers, nothing justifies that, despite the fact that there are fewer workers in the ports, their salaries are a half or a third of those of older workers. That can only be justified by capital’s wish to cut salary expenses in order to increase profits.
The trade union movement also ends up being harmed by the way legislation deals with collective hiring, unbalancing the forces between capital and labor. For example, in the way unions have been weakened in favor of workers committees. These are all ways to take away power from workers collective organization.

DG // And in terms of union organization, how are decisions and communications handled? There appears to be a big emphasis on plenary decision processes.

AM // Capital and governments usually get a bit irritated with this position of ours. In the 2016 Lisbon and 2018 Setúbal agreements, we always insisted on the fact that our “shareholders” are the ones at the base, they will make the decision. We are only their representatives.
In 2016, the deal was only ratified at 2am, after we talked with the workers in Lisbon. In Setúbal, the deal was discussed until midnight, and at 7am we were there with the workers for it to be approved. It was only signed the following day during the early morning.
This close work relationship is not limited to the moment of reaching an agreement, but extends to the whole process of getting there. The agreement managed to get 56 workers hired in Setúbal, with 37 others having priority in further hirings, and the remaining having priority over those not yet around. Ultimately, it is a way to shield those workers. That was never done before, they were always expendable. They only had to miss a day’s work to disappear from the lists, if that was what the bosses wished.
Naturally, we can’t demand that 150 workers be placed somewhere which can only absorb 100, because we realize that might make companies unsustainable. In order for that not to happen, a work division is being implemented among everyone, which will prove that there is additional employability in the port relative to what currently exists.
The matter of distributing work throughout daily shifts before resorting to overtime was one of the things demanded by workers and which we later took to the negotiation table. I can say it was one of the provisions which capital wanted to remove until late. It did not want to put it into writing, but it is applying it in practice. If it does not, we might have some confrontations over it.
There is a permanent dialog between the union leadership, the delegates and the directors we have on the different ports. We have a decentralized ground level union network with which we communicate and organize frequent plenaries via online conference, especially in ports with greater potential for developing conflicts.
The stevedores participate in the decision process trough that fluid communication we have established, with respect for everyone’s opinions, often with a lot of debate. But that is also what allows, as it was possible to observe in the last few years, for a stevedore to walk up to a camera and be able to explain what is happening and why he is fighting. This is something which goes beyond the union leadership, this spirit of everyone realizing that they are fighting for a cause which is also theirs.
Having said that, this is only if not deviating a lot from our principles. It is evident that, as a union, we won’t allow for more selfish and individualistic ideas to impose on the will of the collective.

DG // Are there any other elements, regarding the internal organization of the union, which might have been important?

AM // Speaking of communication, I think it was a terrain where the stevedores have always been massacred. We are an easy target for capital because stevedoring is isolated from the world, as if a barrier existed between society and the port, especially because access is becoming more closed off – it is an international territory, like a border. You need a permit from the Foreigners and Borders Service just to work there.
Additionally, there have been impressive campaigns against stevedores and their forms of struggle. Maybe because a lot of money moves around in ports, a lot of capital, a lot of liquidity, and so it is possible for these campaigns to appear. And they have shocked public opinion a lot, with a few very effective ways of doing so.
What we have been doing is the work of taking these campaigns apart.

DG // Before we talk about the reply, what are some examples of these campaigns? For example, during the fight in Lisbon, the supposed 5000€ salaries of the stevedores were much talked about. Since you have already observed several of these campaigns, what is their anatomy?

AM // That is an easy way to talk. A lot of times, the ones who talk of 5000€ have 50 000€ to run that campaign. Or salaries of 10 or 20 000€. But nobody asks them what their situation is.
The matter of numbers is not only used here. I remember that, two years ago, they were also used in Spain. It is a way to pull the population, such as in Portugal, subject to very low salaries, to the abyss of 600€ – not even the 1000€ which were talked about before – by saying that any profession who has managed to fight for superior conditions is privileged. That is the pettiness that such campaigns toy with.
I have difficulty in judging the value of each profession. I think each one must fight for itself collectively, by organizing. The salaries practiced in ports are the result of decades of struggles.
When asked about it, I usually replied to the matter of the 5000€, that if I did the work of three stevedores, I might be able to get such a paycheck. That is the question. The truth is most stevedores in Portugal, right now, and despite the qualitative jump in the port of Setúbal, are being payed much less than 1000€. Or even 800€.
When we hear those campaigns about high salaries, there probably is someone who is holding a receipt for that amount in their hands, except you don’t know how it was made. If it was by working 16 or 24 hours per day, which has happened in certain functions. It is not as important to communicate that most stevedores who move cargo in ports have miserable salaries and work under daily contracts, something we previously only had until 1979. From 1993, it was reintroduced in ports. That is omitted to try to turn the population against us.
There is another aspect. It is not only the matter of high salaries. Just today I heard it said that unions control the admission of labor. That only sons and friends get in. I’m probably part of the last generation – I got in in 1979 – when such a bosses’ union existed which effectively had control over the selection.
In 1980, when we started having indefinite contracts and tripartite entities (State, bosses and unions), that control disappeared. Private capital companies have been carrying out the selection, recruitment and training processes for over 20 years. The unions do not have anything to do with it for decades. At least ours. I can allow that in the port of Leixões, the so-called model port, that it might still be true. That is not the union model we defend, but we are the ones attacked because another is the model example.
What we are concerned about is avoiding victims in these processes resulting from conflicts. For example, in Setúbal there are 10 people who buckled and signed contracts before there was an agreement. They are most certainly not the best professionals in that port. That obviously caused other good professionals to be left behind. What we wished was to have the possibility, regarding those workers they selected, that we could reconsider some situations of greater seniority, or of workers who were more visible during the process and which could be left behind for speaking their mind in front of the television cameras.
That last part did not actually happen, but there are some injustices regarding seniority situations. Workers with half a dozen months on the job were picked, yet workers with 17 or 20 years of seniority were not.
What we did was, in order to not delay the process further and get to the next stage, we ended up abdicating from choosing anyone. All the choices which exist today on the ground were by employer option. We still don’t have anything to do with it, excepting a list which was sent without preferences in which we said “If you won’t send preferences, we have seniority as the only criterion we can use”. We can’t say that someone who has been working for 10 years has a right to an indefinite contract and someone who has been working for 20 does not.

DG // And in answering these campaigns, what has the union’s strategy been?

AM // On the one hand, as I said, it is to have the whole of the stevedore world be well informed about what is going on. They start off informing friends and family about reality. But of course, the campaigns against us are so massive that we also must try to answer on the same scale.
We have been using social networks for some time now as the most effective way to make our message reach the greatest number of people. Not only Portuguese, as the matter crosses borders. We follow the struggles in Chile, Greece, Sweden, and they follow our struggles and what we write.
Internally, we have a press office in which we have been investing more and more for the past few years. I was making comparisons the other day and we have as much communication as all the other union movements in Portugal put together in terms of social networks.
On the other hand, there is a quick and efficient link between the press office and the conventional social communication network. There we try to act very quickly regarding attacks against us. In many cases we try to create the agenda of what is happening ourselves, as sometimes it is important to stay ahead and not have to correct ideas thrown out there. We believe we have become more effective, and today the idea people have of stevedores in Portugal is clearly not the same idea they had 10 or 15 years ago.

DG // I think that was quite visible in terms of the support that this last strike received, especially on social networks, by other unions and by parties. Is this also a strategy conceived by the union, or something which arose spontaneously?

AM // If we did a little flashback, the 2016 process was a veritable bombardment upon us, and we trailed behind. The 2018 process, here and in the whole country, which is still ongoing and ended with an accord in Setúbal but not in all other ports, was precisely the opposite.
There was an attempt by the State, the government and capital to almost make this strike on overtime work invisible. Up until it was impossible to keep hiding the dimension of the problem being created due to the fact that we were only doing a single daily shift. It is not easy for capital to fight back against this kind of strike.
Well, we kept following our path, denouncing and informing about what was going on. Until things exacerbated when capital made a strategic option to divert attention to Setúbal. In Setúbal we were working every day, 180 workers doing their shift. Thus, there was not any kind of blockade on Autoeuropa [a Volkswagen plant in Setúbal]. There was an accumulation of Autoeuropa vehicles due to engine certification, not because of the stevedore strike – the automobiles kept moving out, as did all other cargo.
That was when we really had to use all means of information and clarification at our disposal, during the conflict and until we reached an agreement. And even after reaching an agreement, we still had to explain what was going on because the other side kept not wanting to follow the strategy that the workers practically forced upon them, regarding hirings and everything else still left to negotiate in ports, like an end to the harassment of our associates.
This is why I do not like to talk about victories, there was a good result in a battle, but we continue to follow closely what is happening because capital still does not want what we stand for, which is to have port labor be mostly permanent. It wants to keep abusing precarious labor. We are going to have a continuous war about that.

DG // Regarding solidarity from outside groups, was that part of an active strategy by the union or something that arose spontaneously?

We are conscious that we have some specificities at our workplace, as I said. It is not as easy to carry out a teachers’ plenary, as they are spread all over the country, in the same way it is possible to do so with stevedores. But today we already have the technological means to do so. Therefore, in fact, it is perhaps a matter of organization.
First of all, it is obvious that we are focused on solving the problems of stevedores in the various national ports. That is, let us say, *laughing* our core business. We also do not ignore that what we are doing is increasingly seen as an example by other sectors and social struggle movements, who convey to us that recognition.
For example, journalists themselves. We know there is a very similar fight against precariousness going on at RTP [the State’s broadcaster]. They accompanied us at the port of Setúbal and with local stevedores. They are hundreds of workers who are also in a situation of precariousness. Anyone talking of RTP can talk of other activity sectors.
It would be pretentious to act as teachers and educators. The truth is that, as I said at the Assembly of the Republic, this fight is against the precariousness which is only permitted due to excessively permissive legislation. It has no reason for existing; we have a model in the port of Lisbon which practically dispenses with precariousness in the future.
We managed to prove that precariousness is not necessary and that this kind of work by daily contract does not have to exist, as it does not allow people to have any quality of life. We recognize that what we are doing is being observed by other sectors and individual workers, who must take steps towards their own organization, mobilization and construction of efficient and active structures.
I’m thinking of strike funds. They are, fundamentally, an insurance that workers build so that in conflict situations they might resist capital. And we have followed that practice for many decades now.

DG // In terms of solidarity, we previously touched upon the matter of international coordination between stevedores. How is this coordination achieved and what is its potential and limits?

AM // We already have practical examples of that support in our processes. It was determinant during the 2014 process. A ship loaded by scabs in Lisbon was blocked. During the Setúbal process, there were also a few ships which were intervened, especially in Spain and also in Germany. These are one-off situations. In terms of international solidarity, it all depends on whether it is possible to act within each countries’ legislation.
A Nordic country or a southern country often have different ways of showing support, in formal terms, in legal terms. In some cases, political solidarity actions are allowed, in others they aren’t. It is undeniable that the possibility of providing support to a labor conflict in another country and another port, is always something which has its weight in a balance of forces which does not usually exist between capital and labor. But, there you go, economic groups keep getting bigger. In the port sector, terminals are increasingly in the hands of a smaller number of global groups.
Such is the case in Portugal as well. The Turkish group which controls most of the shipping container terminals in Portugal is now almost one of the top 10 biggest terminal managers in the world. If on the one hand that gives great power to capital, on the other hand our organization also allows us to give an answer regarding conflicts going on somewhere else, even on another continent. That happened a lot in the past between the United States of America, Australia and South Africa. It is something that unions must look at as a way of fighting with more equal weapons.
When we moved towards organizing at the national level, it is precisely because there is no other way to have some balance between us and the companies present in every port. That can’t be fixed with fragmented local unions. That was the practice in Portugal. In the past we managed to have over 20 unions in Portuguese ports.
We don’t want to be the sole union, but we want to show what it is we defend that is different. If, in the end, that leads us to be the sole union, that is OK. Now, what we can’t accept is for small unions, which many times are built by the bosses themselves, to be used to sign whatever contracts bosses want signed. That we will always fight.
At the national level, we want a force which is capable of facing the big economic groups present all over the country. At the international level, the principle is the same. If we can’t fight them using only the force we have in Portugal, then – both resorting to outside support but also providing it – when we are asked to give support we will do so, as was the case for a process in Spain two years ago, when we said we would not load any ships diverted from Spain while the conflict was going on.
Many times, the pressure comes from outside the European Union. In the Spanish case, some terminals are being bought by COSCO, Chinese companies. We will have the same problem in Portugal in the short term. Big groups and great powers are going to want to install themselves, probably with bad conditions, salaries and contractual links. That is how Portuguese ports are still being advertised.
We will keep fighting to ensure that does not happen.

DG // We talked about a series of advantages and disadvantages specific to stevedoring. It also has the advantage of being super important within the current economic model. Everything is planned to make sure that commodities arrive just in time, to reduce storage expenses. If you put a break on that transportation line, you jam factories, commerce, everything.

Cargo ships waiting out the 2015 Los Angeles’ port strike. Photo by Mike Kelley.

Are these advantages somewhat misleading about the potential of the organizational model, if it was transplanted to another sector?

AM // Yes, such a direct and immediate effect is missing. We stand at a crucial point in commodity circulation, and thus of globalization. As you said, with factories on zero stock and dependent on a container arriving with parts or raw materials. That evidently helps, as does the fact that the container which we loaded is going to be unloaded by our comrades in another port. Here we have an almost direct and emotional relationship – other stevedores are going to handle the same container which we put in place, or which a scab worked – and they have the capacity to refuse to handle it.
But the truth is that every sector, be it education, health, transportation, some more than others, can achieve results when organized and willing to resist. I say again that it also requires them to have reserves, because processes can drag on. And the surrounding solidarity in international terms is still important. Several kinds of production are increasingly concentrated – not all – and thus doing something in one country accompanied by action in another ends up having an enormous weight.
The distribution economic groups, either from the energy sector or others, are increasingly a part of global networks serving the interests of capital. Therefore, I think it is possible. Of course, it depends on each sector studying at each moment what is the best way to act.
We ourselves don’t have the same conditions in every port. Some economic groups are present in all ports, but others have their particularities. We must always think of a strategy for each port.
Each sector must also analyze, think and decide on its internal national articulation. Without looking for disaggregation and fragmentation, as I don’t think that is the way to go. The workers must choose the best teams to head organizations, that is fine. But I don’t think things will be solved by the atomization of structures.
There are also adequate means, even inside the country, of speaking with all the professionals in each trade. If I was here today representing an activity spread all over the country, it would only be a matter of saying “everyone be online Tuesday, so we can talk”. And in the case of international connections, today we can talk with the whole world at almost no cost.
Therefore, people must dedicate themselves to that. They must dedicate a part of their time to organize at other levels in order to contact people and achieve visible results beyond the confines of the desk or the room where they usually work.

DG // Going back a bit to a topic we touched upon previously, how has the relationship with the companies evolved, as well as their anti-union practices?

AM // That question probably leads us to the reasons behind the latest conflicts. There are two phases – one in which the unions merged in order to have a regional representation, and from there we reached a phase in which we are more organized in territorial terms than capital itself.
As I said, companies merged into economic groups. Today we have 3 or 4 in national ports; the State of Singapore in Sines, the Sousa group in the Madeira connections, a national group called ETE and the Yilport group which bought Tertir’s entire business from Mota-Engil.
Those are the 4 groups that essentially dominate the national port scene. We had a strategic vision that we must go national in order to have a possibility of some equilibrium in the talks between labor and capital.
From there, the problem of high precariousness in the port of Setúbal, which was really absurd, started to get resolved. It was also promised that the matter of the harassment of SEAL members in Leixões and Madeira would be resolved. But it was easier to fix the problem of precariousness than fixing the question of harassment.
When capital harasses workers for their union choice, that means they do not want to see the union organization grow, even if they need to violate the law. Our members’ salaries are half of those of other local workers. Capital is saying “you people, SEAL, can’t grow”. This is the tug-of-war which is not visible but is behind the entire process. You can solve situations of precariousness, because we are going to solve them all sooner or later, but you can’t stop persecuting our members.

The 2018 stevedores’ demonstration in Lisbon was against precariousness, but also against the persecution of its members in ports like Leixões. One of the stevedores who gave a speech mentioned that the bosses had sent people to film them during the protest.

DG // Speaking of precariousness, I think the Setúbal struggle revealed how precariousness is a national policy. There is a plan that spans governments, in which the country must function on the basis of precariousness and low salaries. This was demonstrated by the government’s willingness to poison public opinion on social communication and make available the repressive apparatus to remove the workers carrying out the strike picket at the port of Setúbal.

AM // It also had the merit of showing, and perhaps this wasn’t in their plans, that precarious workers, with some support, even if only moral, of those with permanent contracts who are taking less chances, can organize and fight this scourge. I think that in symbolic terms, what happened in Setúbal was very good. The 150 workers, who in fact control the factory production which is the port, had the capability of saying enough and it stopped.
Well, that struggle could only be perverted by what happened, the intervention with the use of force and the illegalities which were committed, or through intimidation processes, to try and break that unity. Because otherwise, they managed to stop the factory. After that it is only a matter of time until we have a deal.

DG // And regarding the idea of precariousness as national policy?

AM // As could be noticed ever since we started selling the idea in China and its whereabouts that Portugal is a country of low salaries and precariousness, that sooner or later we were going to be pushed in that direction. Our struggle is exactly against these aspects; to prove that precariousness is not necessary and that with some overtime the oscillations in demand in ports can be accommodated.
Operestiva was in parliament the other day. They were asked how many hours the workers did at present. They didn’t answer, right? I answered yesterday. They did on average 1500 hours during the year 2018. Permanent workers did. Meaning, if there was no strike on overtime, they would have reached December with 2500 hours. That is what companies want, to give some all and others nothing. Keeping precariousness while the other workers are accommodated with good salaries resulting from having no personal life because they are working for the company around the clock.
In the last few years, governments have done everything possible to make those situations happen, by creating the legal possibility of hiring like this. In practice, if we go to court on a case by case basis, the court is going to say that there is nothing illegal there. The worker was hired for that turn, even if he does the same thing for 20 years; probably no case has ever won, so the legislation is what’s wrong. A legislation which was created to allow exactly what is being announced in the East; come invest in Portugal, because precariousness is a given and we are going to take care of low wages next.
As I say, in 1993 we were all employees, with permanent contracts. Our wage levels were where they are today. At around 2000€, in round figures. Why is it that these future generations must work for 700€ when fewer stevedores are needed for operations? This is a rational matter. Of course, capital is not rational, capital wants to squeeze out more and more. Our fight is to say that the legislation must change, it can’t allow what it does right now in port work, things which it does not allow in other sectors of activity.
It got to the point that a law was approved in 2012, 2013, saying that port labor recruitment companies can recruit in temporary labor companies. This is not possible in other activity sectors. It is a crime. Yet here they go so far that even that is possible.
In order to take precariousness to the extreme, any kind of contract is allowed: intermittent work, by the day, by the hour. The legislation permits all. That must change. It shouldn’t exactly be union organizations that then have to keep entering into conflicts, carrying out strikes and other processes. Because that is the only way they have to defend themselves from the legislation which is made exactly to push workers into the unacceptable situations which are not worthy of the XXI century. Not in human terms, not in social terms.

DG // I’ve noticed that in your interventions on social communication, the somewhat absent language of class struggle has reappeared. In the union sphere as well, theoretical tools are needed to interpret what is happening. A few years ago there was still an embarrassment in talking about capital, about labor…

AM // About scabs.

DG // Has the union done any theoretical work to recover those analytical tools?

AM // Today SEAL is more than one person, even more than the team which heads it. There are many workers that, in their workplace and even as precarious workers, already have this notion of reality and who gave excellent interviews during this process. I was listening to them live from a distance and recognizing their capability to respond clearly about the situation. But none of them has ever studied Marx. Neither have I. If I studied something, it was in engineering.
What we do is coldly analyze what is going on. As such, the conclusion that we are all maybe arriving at is that independently of the more or less political and sociological education we might have, we are facing concrete questions, and those don’t depend on great theorizing. They are processes of class struggle.
Here is an example: the law we currently have was introduced by the initiative of PSD, but it was approved by PS. I’m not going to say that there are no differences between Right and Left, I don’t want to enter into that debate. Naturally, I understand that they exist. What is going on right now is a fight between labor and capital. Capital is increasingly concentrated, which gives it much more power.
In the port sector, they even call themselves cartels. Whether at the level of shipowners or of port terminal management, they increasingly want to concentrate more and, when they unable to, they ally. What we have is an increasingly organized capital on the one hand, and what we intend is to have labor increasingly organized on the other. And there is a collision, right? There is a collision, and it becomes stronger and harder but we still think that organized labor has a lot of strength, independently of the kind of capital it is facing. As we usually say, we can also choose to work or not work.
In that attempt to simplify discourses during the more habitual conflicts, class struggle words appear, like talking about mercenaries who replace striking workers, it all ends up becoming much more simplified in our language. Not because of our education, but by confirming that things end up being simpler on the ground. You don’t need a big degree to figure out what is happening in this area.

DG // By osmosis, people end up understanding these relationships.

AM // I would put like this: these processes are so intense, so absorbing, and at the same time so creative, that we end up focusing exactly, in each situation, on what needs to be done, or the best strategy to do it. We don’t have time to read books, we have time to consult the base, understand what is the best scenario for each conflict and find the best solutions, find a strategy, have a direction.
Others study this, and we are naturally grateful that they do it. We ourselves often can’t reach all the conclusions and interpret everything going on because we are the ones building that process.

DG // One last question, perhaps somewhat malicious. How do you look at a certain image policing, coming from the Right but also visible on the Left; this idea that stevedores curse and have an uncouth appearance, as if to say their demands are void because they don’t present themselves as…

AM // As politically correct, let’s say.

DG // Yes. I mean, if someone has been screwed for 20 years, with no workplace rights, I think the last thing that should occur to anyone is to be bothered because they insulted the minister or the prime-minister or whoever.

AM // Yes, well-behaved children we shall never be, also because of our historical roots. Because of our activity, in conclusion – isolated as we are, with our own way of talking – once we even had our own vocabulary. Naturally, we don’t like it when limits are crossed, because that can turn against us, individually and collectively. But to be honest, we don’t take much action regarding that.

Stevedores from all over Europe bothering tourism in Lisbon with their rude manners (2012)

One things we do know; by representing other stevedores, especially in a few ports: Setúbal, Lisboa, Figueira, almost all in fact, we also represent workers from different political quadrants. It is also as part of this process that we must function. On the one hand we want to be independent and we invest in that, because we know that any more direct connections, in political, ideological terms, also leave out or sets against the collective certain constituencies. We must take those precautions.
On the other hand, as I say, while not defending the extremes, we also understand that our somewhat rebellious image, of some provocation, sometimes with some language excesses – this was even referred to in court judgements – can be understood as part of the stevedoring language, as part of a demonstration of force. Be it because of color or movement.
I would put it like this: I would not like a well-behaved stevedoring. We have an image, and that is not something we are going to change. I don’t think we have to be politically correct, because the fact of the matter is that the politically correct are very incorrect with working people, for decades now. It would be best if they thought about that and stopped going around trying to denigrate the image of a collective which might just be right about everything it demands.
The work of the Stevedores and Logistical Activity Union can be followed at their blog and Facebook page.

Dockers Hangarounds - Svein Lundeng

Dockers Hangarounds - Svein Lundeng

Felixstowe Dockers40 reasons why we need a dual carriageway Northern Bypass

Orwell Ahead hopes a northern bypass would ease this kind of congestion in Colchester Road, Ipswich. Picture: SARAH LUCY BROWN

As Suffolk County Council - in partnership with other local authorities - starts the consultation process over plans for a new northern route for Ipswich to ease traffic in the area and stimulate new development, campaign group Orwell Ahead has set out 40 reasons why the town needs a full Northern Bypass.

The inner option for the new northern route would go near Bealings level crossing. Picture: SARAH LUCY BROWN
The group says that while it sympathises with those impacted and understand the environmental concerns raised over the Northern Route, it is still backing the bypass.
It says every one of its statistical statements is sourced; generally from three Local Plans (Ipswich Borough, East Suffolk, Babergh & MSDC) and from council prospectuses, industry sources (including the Port of Felixstowe website).
The group states: "Orwell Ahead campaign believe that a dual carriageway "inner option" northern route (Claydon to Martlesham) must be the number one priority and objective for Suffolk Chamber, Suffolk County Council and all stakeholders in the region."
To keep the Port of Felixstowe viable 
1. 1982: 300,000 container moves crossing the new Orwell Bridge
NOW 3 Million+
2. 1982: Container ship optimum size 1,800 containers per vessel, discharging 300-400 TEUS per port call
NOW: 22,000 container vessels, discharging 6,000 containers per port call
3. The Port of Felixstowe is the only major container terminal in northern Europe NOT connected by a motorway. Post Brexit deep sea trade will grow significantly, our country depends upon it.
4. Around 30,000 logistics jobs are directly and indirectly dependent on the local and regional infrastructure (rail and highways) in and around Ipswich.
5. The Port of Felixstowe is facing an increasing threat from London Gateway.
6. London Gateway has 120 miles of motorway to the "golden triangle" (the key midlands distribution hubs). The South East LEP is promoting a Lower Thames Crossing which will alleviate the worst of congestion affecting London Gateway.
7. From Felixstowe you must travel 120 miles before reaching motorway on route to these hubs. The journey is on a badly congested A14 with major bottle necks and weak points, like the Orwell Bridge which is already creaking with 3m containers crossing each year.
To serve a successful and growing area
8. Ipswich is one of the country's largest and fastest growing economies with £4.5bn GVA per annum.
9. The Greater Ipswich area has a combined GVA of around £8bn pa. It is the heart of the greatest economic zone in Norfolk and Suffolk. We take it for granted at our peril.
10. Norwich and Norfolk secured £400m-plus of spending for upgrades to the A11 and A47, and sensibly concluded that there must be a dual carriageway northern bypass for Norwich. The Norwich Northern Distributor Road on its own is coming in at around £185m. 
11. Ipswich is very similar in population size to Norwich and Cambridge. Our urban centre has a higher population than Norwich. Our "greater urban area" and "Office of National Statistics Travel to Work" area is also similar.
12. By 2031, Suffolk's population is expected to grow by 27% (195,000). Much of this growth will be in the Ipswich to Felixstowe peninsula.
13. A complete inner option Northern Bypass will unlock massive economic benefits for the Port of Felixstowe, BT Martlesham, south and east Suffolk and Greater Ipswich.
14. A complete inner option Northern Bypass will assist the flow to/from east Suffolk. Being the final link in a "Greater Ipswich orbital road system" it would provide clockwise and counter clockwise options to navigate and enter/exit East Anglia's biggest city economy.
15. A complete inner option Northern Bypass could provide at least five more key routes to/from/through Ipswich.
To form a Greater Ipswich Orbital allowing for movement to/from/across the town 
16. 1982: Ipswich Borough's population 110,000.
NOW: 133,000. FORECAST: 150,000
17. 1982: Kesgrave, Martlesham and Trimley once villages 
NOW: Suffolk Coastal District Council (now East Suffolk District Council) putting 51% of its housing south of the Deben like an "Ipswich Mark II", disjointed new towns and massive planned estates with no joined up infrastructure to serve them.
18. 1982: Greater Ipswich travel to work (TTW) area population 180,000

Ipswich Northern Bypass: For and Against
Paul Geater from the EADT / Ipswich Star explains the arguments for and against an Ipswich Northern Bypass or relief road.
Volume 0%